A Stacked Back Side-Illuminated Voltage Domain Global Shutter CMOS Image Sensor with a 4.0 μm Multiple Gain Readout Pixel
2020 Jan. 15
A backside-illuminated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with 4.0 μm voltage domain global shutter (GS) pixels has been fabricated in a 45 nm/65 nm stacked CMOS process as a proof-of-concept vehicle. The pixel components for the photon-to-voltage conversion are formed on the top substrate (the first layer). Each voltage signal from the first layer pixel is stored in the sample-and-hold capacitors on the bottom substrate (the second layer) via micro-bump interconnection to achieve a voltage domain GS function. The two sets of voltage domain storage capacitor per pixel enable a multiple gain readout to realize single exposure high dynamic range (SEHDR) in the GS operation. As a result, an 80dB SEHDR GS operation without rolling shutter distortions and motion artifacts has been achieved. Additionally, less than −140dB parasitic light sensitivity, small noise floor, high sensitivity and good angular response have been achieved.